10 Ultra-Violent Slang Terms from ‘A Clockwork Orange’

Clockwork Stem

In his iconic novel A Clockwork Orange, Anthony Burgess creates a dystopian world in which youths down milk doused with narcotics before committing random acts of ultra-violence.

He’s also created a language. Nadsat-talk, or just Nadsat, is a mix of Russian, German, French, and Cockney influences, as well as almost every linguistic trick in the book, including blends (chumble, possibly “chatter” and “mumble”), reduplication (baddiwad for “bad”), nounification (warbles for “songs”), shortenings (guff, “to laugh,” from guffaw), and pure invention (cables for “blood vessels” and flatblock for “home”).

On what would have been his 99th birthday, we take a look 10 words invented by Burgess in A Clockwork Orange.

clockwork orange

“So I creeched louder still, creeching: ‘Am I just to be like a clockwork orange?’”

In addition to being the title of a book within the book, a clockwork orange refers to someone who has been made to work “like clockwork,” that is, mechanically and without free will.

As for the title’s origin, Burgess himself has a couple of explanations. In The New Yorker, he writes that he first heard the expression “as queer as a clockwork orange” before World War II in a pub in London, and that it’s “an old Cockney slang phrase, implying a queerness or madness so extreme as to subvert nature.” The phrase also juxtaposes “a thing living, growing, sweet, juicy, to a cold dead artifact.”

In Joysprick: An Introduction to the Language of James Joyce, Burgess notes that when he “wrote a novel called A Clockwork Orange, no European reader saw that the Malay word for ‘man’ — orang — was contained in the title.” The Malay orang is also contained within orangutan, which translates as “man of the wilderness.”


“There was me, that is Alex, and my three droogs, that is Pete, Georgie, and Dim.”

Droog, a young hooligan or gang member, is the one Burgess neologism that has made it into the Oxford English Dictionary, at least so far. The word comes from the Russian drug, meaning “friend.” It may be no coincidence that drug is also a homograph of the English drug since pharmaceuticals play a large part in the novel.


“‘Oh I shall go home. Back to my pee and em.’
‘Your — ?’ He didn’t get nadsat-talk at all, so I said:
‘To my parents in the dear old flatblock.'”

Nadsat is another Russian-influenced invented slang term. Meaning “teenage,” the word comes from the Russian suffix for “teen,” nadtsat.


“I read this with care, my brothers, slurping away at the old chai, cup after tass after chasha, crunching my lomticks of black toast dipped in jammiwan and eggiweg.”

Reduplication is another device Burgess uses in Nadsat-speak. The childish singsong of words such as eggiweg, jammiwam, and punchipunching are a chilling apposition against the depraved ultra-violence of Alex and his droogs.

moloko plus

“I took the large moloko plus to one of the little cubies that were all around this mesto, there being like curtains to shut them off from the main mesto, and there I sat down in the plushy chair and sipped and sipped.”

A moloko plus is milk spiked with drugs. Moloko is a direct translation from Russian for “milk.” (Mesto, by the way, is Russian for “place.”) Like eggiweg and jammiwam, moloko plus sets up the childish (milk) against the depraved (hard drugs).

Moloko plus is also called knify moloko — “There we were, a-waiting and peeting away at the the old knify moloko, and you had not turned up” — or “milk with knives in it,” which is made to “sharpen you up and make you ready for a bit of dirty twenty-to-one.”

What does all of this mean? Knives refer to amphetamines, according to the introduction of the book, but perhaps also plays on the term spiked, containing drugs or alcohol. Peet comes from pit, the Russian word for “drink,” while being sharp may be an allusion to being hyper-aware and sped up, an effect of amphetamines. Dirty twenty-to-one might refer to gang violence involving sexual assault.

Other fictional drug names in the novel include synthemesc, vellocet, and drencrom. Synthemesc might come from “synthetic mescaline” while vellocet might play on the name of a motorcycle company, evoking speed and velocity. Drencrom might be an alteration of adrenochrome, a drug that causes “thought disorder, derealization, and euphoria.”


“Dim put on a hound-and-horny look of evil, saying: ‘I don’t like you should do what you done then.’”

Hound-and-horny seems to be a kind of invented rhyming slang term that means “corny.” Other such terms include, for “money,” pretty polly (“If you need pretty polly, you take it”) and cutter, which might come from bread and butter, meaning livelihood. Luscious glory meaning “hair” (“my luscious glory was a wet tangled cally mess”) might come from crowning glory.


“I wanted to be sick, so I got out of bed all trembly so as to go off down the corridor to the old vaysay. But behold, brothers, the door was locked.”

Vaysay is Nadsat slang for the restroom, coming from the French pronunciation of the British English W.C., or water closet. Other French-derived slang terms include sinny, which comes from cinéma or ciné, and tass from tasse, “cup.”


“Why this sudden shilarny for being the big bloated capitalist?”

Shilarny, meaning “concern,” seems to be a purely invented with perhaps an Irish influence. Another invented word with an unclear origin is sharp, slang for “woman.”

barry place

“Next it’s going to be the barry place and all my work ruined.”

The barry place, or prison, refers to the bars of a cell. Another slang term for jail is stripey hole, again for the image of prison bars.


“This is the real weepy and like tragic part of the story beginning, my brothers and only friends, in Staja (State Jail, that is) Number 84F.”

Staja is another term for jail, a blend of “State Jail,” but also reminiscent of Stalag, a prisoner-of-war camp in Germany. Stalag is a shortening of Stammlager, which comes from Kriegsgefangenen-Mannschafts-Stammlager, which translates roughly as “main POW camp.”

Other German-derived words include shlaga, a club or a bat, which comes from Schlager, to hit, and tashtook (“He’d taken a big snotty tashtook from his pocket”), which comes from Taschentuch, “handkerchief.”

Word Buzz Wednesday: bugging; neurogastronomy; winterspreading


Welcome to Word Buzz Wednesday, your go-to place for some of the most interesting words of the week. The latest: logos that bug, making our brains go yum, and another annoying -spreading.


“The signature example of biomimetics in action may be the invention of Swiss engineer George de Mestral, who in 1948, after a hunting trip in the Alps, was frustrated and fascinated by the burrs he picked from his clothing and his dog’s fur.”

Alexis Boncy, “Behold the innovative power of biomimetics,” The Week, February 12, 2016

Biomimetics refers to the use of “biological systems as models” for design and engineering. Swiss engineer George de Mestral based the design of his very famous invention, Velcro, on the way burrs’ hooks “snared loops of thread or hair,” says The Week. (Velcro, by the way, is a trademarked term that combines the French words velours, “velvet,” and crochet, “hook.”)

The term biomimetics, says the Oxford English Dictionary, was coined in 1970. The adjective form was earlier, coming about in 1960, and was used primarily in chemistry.


“The video, which went viral, had the phrase ‘TMZ SPORTS’ embossed in the center—a branding practice known as ‘bugging.’”

Nicholas Schmidle, “The Digital Dirt,” The New Yorker, February 22, 2016

A bug refers to a television station’s logo that appears onscreen, often in the bottom corner, during part or the entirety of a show. Also known as DOG, which stands for “digital on-screen graphic,” bugs may also advertise an upcoming show.


“US-based web designer Ben Gillin said his main aim in creating the Kimunji was to mock the ‘terrible’ Kimoji, which he said were damaging to society.”

Kim Jong-un emojis take on Kim Kardashian Kimoji,” BBC News, February 12, 2016

Kimojis are emojis based on Kim Kardashian’s, er, anatomy. Kimunji uses the likenesses of North Korean leader Kim Jong-un, his father, his grandfather, and other North Korean-related “news or fears,” such as nuclear warheads, a mushroom cloud, and Dennis Rodman, BBF of the Supreme Leader.


“This is the overarching principle that guides neurogastronomy: What we eat and why we eat it is as much a psychological phenomenon as a physical one.”

Maria Konnikova, “Altered Tastes,” New Republic, February 15, 2016

First there was neurothriller, now there’s neurogastronomy. Neurogastronomy, says New Republic, examines “how our sense of taste is interpreted and reinterpreted by the brain.” Yale neurobiologist Gordon Shepherd coined the term in 2006.

Shepherd’s research has shown that flavor, and what tastes good or bad to us, is all in our minds. Rather than re-engineer what we eat, says Eater, neurogastronomy focuses on “how we can re-wire the brain to perceive food differently.”


Winterspreading might occur in other cities that experience…winter, but it strikes me as a distinctly New York affliction because of the high ratio of people to available space.”

Kate Mooney, “‘Winterspreading’ Is Driving Restaurant & Bar Workers Crazy,” Gothamist, February 15, 2016

Move over manspreading (no really: MOVE): winterspreading is here. At the heart of the inconsiderate practice is taking up more than one’s fair share of space by shedding coats and other winter gear onto neighboring tables and chairs.

Word Buzz Wednesday: bama, bunnygate, neurothriller

Baby Bunny

Welcome to Word Buzz Wednesday, your go-to place for some of the most interesting words of the week. The latest: reappropriating an insult; a cute-sounding scandal; a new kind of horror movie.


“Five days ago, Beyoncé stepped outside of the expected pop-idol box and introduced ‘Formation’ a song rooted in her family’s mingling of Alabama and Louisiana heritage to create her, a self-described ‘Texas bama.’”

Mikki Kendall, “Hot Sauce in Her Bag,” Eater, February 10, 2016

Bama is a Washington, D.C. slang term for “someone of a more countryfied (from a place, like say, Alabama) flavor,” says The Washington Post. It could be used in a derogatory sense, or “might be qualified as a term of endearment or as just a general term for a person.”


“The continuing fallout of Bunnygate is a sobering demonstration of just why so many professors, even those with tenure, keep their heads down and traps shut.”

Rebecca Schuman, “Tenure Protects Nothing,” Slate, February 11, 2016

Bunnygate is the latest in -gate suffixed scandals, this one involving Simon Newman, the president of Mount St. Mary’s University, who was “caught encouraging his faculty to identify struggling freshmen and coerce them to drop out before they harmed the institution’s bottom line,” according to Slate. He likened such a practice to “drowning and shooting ‘cuddly bunnies.’”

Faculty members who spoke out against Newman were unceremoniously removed from their positions, including one professor who was tenured.


LIGO had its detractors from the very start because it was going to be expensive and might detect nothing at all.”

Joel Achenbach, “A brief history of gravity, gravitational waves and LIGO,” The Washington Post, February 11, 2016

LIGO stands for “Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory” and recently “detected gravitational waves from the violent merging of two black holes roughly a billion light-years away.” The existence of gravitational waves — “ripples in the spacetime fabric” — was a prediction of Einstein’s equations, which scientists have been trying to find for decades.


“We are taken on a neuronal rollercoaster that will eventually give us the story. Hence it might be possible to speak of contemporary suspense cinema as a cinema of ‘neurothrillers’.”

Patricia Pisters, “Neurothriller,” Aeon, February 8, 2016

Aeon proposes that some modern-day horror films have evolved into a new type: the neurothriller, which creates a “spiral of fear” through “sound, image, and sophisticated computer technology,” rather than classic narrative, and taps into “the circuitry of the ancient emotional brain.” Another term might be psychological thriller, although neurothriller is certainly cooler-sounding.


“Hot gas in the chlorinator gets piped out and condensed into a new compound called titanium tetrachloride, or ‘tickle,’ as engineers call it.”

Del Quentin Wilber, “How a corporate spy swiped plans for DuPont’s billion-dollar color formula,” Bloomberg Business, February 4, 2016

The nickname tickle comes from its resemblance to the molecular formula of titanium tetrachloride, TiCl4.

What’s Happening with Wordnik: News and Events

all the news

TED 2016, PyCon, and a Leap Day birthday — these are just some of the shenanigans Wordnik will be getting into in the upcoming months. Check them all out.

The First 100,000 Funded Kickstarter Projects in 100 Numbers

What a way to start the month: Wordnik’s Kickstarter campaign to find a million missing words got a mention in Kickstarter’s post on Medium about 100,000 projects that have gotten funded. Thanks Kickstarter!

While our campaign has concluded, you can still help us out by adopting a word.

PyCon 2016: Putting 1 Million New Words into the Dictionary

Speaking at PyCon this year spring will be Manuel Ebert of summer.ai, the machine learning organization we’ve been working with to find and gather data on those missing million words.

TED 2016: What words will Erin McKean find this year?

TED 2016 kicks off this week! In addition to talks from the greatest thinkers around the world, our fearless leader Erin McKean will be presenting her picks for the most interesting words of the conference. Check out her choices from last year and 2014.

If you’re following the TED livestream and hear an interesting word, let Erin know at @emckean with the hashtag #wordsatTED.

Happy Birthday to Us: Wordnik turns 2!

Because Wordnik was incorporated on Leap Day 2008, we’re only turning two this year, but that’s plenty big enough for our very own birthday party. If you’re in the Bay Area, please join us on Monday, February 29 at the Heavybit Clubhouse. There will be word games and cake!

All the Presidents’ Words: 11 Words from U.S. Presidents

2009 Five Presidents, President George W. Bush, President Elect Barack Obama, Former Presidents George H W Bush, Bill Clinton & Jimmy Carter, Standing

It’s Presidents Day, and we here at Wordnik are celebrating by taking a look at some presidential words. Some are coinages, others were merely popularized, and at least one has been misattributed. Cue “Hail to the Chief” as you explore these 11 words from U.S. presidents.


“In reviewing the incidents of my administration, I am unconscious of intentional error.”

George Washington, Farewell Address, 1796

While the word administration was in use for hundreds of years before Washington’s, his was the first to refer specifically to a “U.S. president’s period in office,” says the Online Etymology Dictionary.

Another Washingtonian coinage is Brother Jonathan, “a humorous designation for the people of the United States collectively.” The term is supposed to have come from the way the first president addressed one of his trusted advisors, Jonathan Trumbull.


“Necessity obliges us to neologize.”

Thomas Jefferson, Correspondence, August 16, 1813

Of course neologize, to coin or use new words, is one of our favorite presidential neologisms. Like Wordnik founder Erin McKean, Jefferson was in favor of making up new words, including belittle, odometer, Anglophobia, and one isolated use of public relations.


“The Democratic O.K. Club are hereby ordered to meet at the House of Jacob Colvin.”

Democratic Republican New Era, March 23, 1840

The word OK can thank Martin Van Buren, at least in part, for its popularity. The affirmation began as part of 1839 “slang fad” in Boston and New York, says the Online Etymology Dictionary, and an abbreviation of oll korrect, a deliberate misspelling of “all correct.”

Around the same time, says Mental Floss, “OK merged with Martin van Buren’s nickname, Old Kinderhook,” and later gained negative meanings such as “out of kash” and “out of karacter.” However, what might have given OK the long-term OK was the telegraph, for which OK became a handy way to acknowledge transmissions.

bully pulpit

“He had finished a paragraph of a distinctly character, when he suddenly stopped, swung round in his swivel chair, and said: ‘I suppose my critics will call that preaching but I have got such a bully pulpit!’”

Lyman Abbott, “A Review of President Roosevelt’s Administration,” The Outlook, February 27, 1909

The phrase bully pulpit, “an advantageous position, as for making one’s views known or rallying support,” is attributed second hand to Theodore Roosevelt. As World Wide Words points out, bully here may not refer to the modern sense of being pushed around or harassed, but to an older meaning of “excellent” or “splendid.”

Another term coined by Roosevelt is lunatic fringe, the fanatical or extremist members of a group or society. He also popularized muckraker, “one who inquires into and publishes scandal and allegations of corruption among political and business leaders.”

We can’t forget the teddy bear which was named for the 28th president, who, famous as a big-game hunter and conservationist, inspired a cartoon with two bears named Teddy. German toy dealers smelled an opportunity and created a line of “Roosevelt bears” to export to the U.S.


“America’s present need is not heroics but healing; not nostrums but normalcy; not revolution but restoration.”

Warren G. Harding, Address before Home Market Club at Boston, Massachusetts, May 14, 1920

Like bloviate — a word Harding used to describe his own “long-winded speaking style,” normalcy was a word that Harding popularized rather than coined, according to Visual Thesaurus. However, Harding is credited with creating the term founding fathers.


“Very ‘iffy’, Mr. Roosevelt might characterize such talk.”

World This Week, May 9, 1937

Like bully pulpit, iffy is attributed by word of mouth: FDR is said to have been the first to use the word to describe uncertainty or doubt about a situation.

domino theory

“Eisenhower’s speech invoked what would be known as the ‘domino theory’ — the notion a communist takeover in Indochina would lead other Asian nations to follow suit.”

Andrew Glass, “Eisenhower invokes the domino theory, Aug. 4, 1953,” Politico, August 4, 2015

The domino theory, the idea that once one nation becomes Communist, neighboring ones will also fall, like dominoes, under Communist control, comes from Eisenhower’s 1953 speech: “You have broader considerations that might follow what you would call the ‘falling domino’ principle.”

welfare queen

“Linda Taylor, the 47-year-old ‘welfare queen’, was being held in jail in Tucson, Ariz., Friday at the request of Chicago police in lieu of a $100,000 bond.”

George Bliss, “‘Welfare queen’ jailed in Tucson,” The Chicago Tribune, October 12, 1974

Welfare queen, referring to a woman who appears to live in luxury while defrauding the welfare system, is often associated with Ronald Reagan. However, he never actually used the term, and its attribution actually goes to George Bliss of The Chicago Tribune.

voodoo economics

“Bush warned a friendly crowd of students not to be deceived by Reagan’s ‘voodoo economics’.”

Philadelphia Inquirer, April 11, 1980

Voodoo economics is a derogatory term for unrealistic or ill-advised economic policies, as the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) puts it. It was coined by the first president Bush, George H.W., in 1980, prior to becoming the Gipper’s running mate: “Bush warned a friendly crowd of students not to be deceived by Reagan’s ‘voodoo economics’.”

axis of evil

“States like these, and their terrorist allies, constitute an axis of evil, arming to threaten the peace of the world.”

George W. Bush, State of the Union, January 29, 2002

Axis of evil, referring to Iran, Iraq, and North Korea, is probably one of the most well-known Dubya-isms. The term was coined by his speechwriter at the time, David Frum, who has said that he saw similarities between this axis of evil and the WWII Axis powers of Germany, Italy, and Japan.

President Bush is also known for what some consider linguistic gaffes, such as misunderestimate, embetterment, and nucular for “nuclear.” While misunderestimate is a conflation of misunderstand and underestimate, according to the OED, embetter was an actual word used from the 16th to the 19th centuries.

As for nucular, that’s an example metathesis, “the switching of two adjacent sounds,” and Bush wasn’t the only who went nucular. Presidents Eisenhower, Carter, and Clinton were also guilty of “mispronouncing” the word.


“If you say you’re for equal pay for equal work, but you keep refusing to say whether or not you’d sign a bill that protects equal pay for equal work — you might have Romnesia.”

Barack Obama, “Remarks by the President at a Campaign Event — Fairfax, VA,” October 19, 2012

Romnesia, in case it isn’t obvious, is a blend of the name of one-time presidential contender Mitt Romney and amnesia.

Romnesia isn’t Obama’s only coinage. Back in 2009 he said, “”There’s something about August going into September where everybody in Washington gets all wee-weed up.” No one could really figure out what he meant, although Urban Dictionary has a few interesting theories, such as that “wee-wee” has nothing to do with urine but with the little pig who cried wee-wee-wee, all the way home.

As for the most famous neologism about Obama, Obamacare, that was apparently coined by lobbyist Jeanne Schulte Scott in 2007.

Want more presidential words? You might like Paul Dickson’s Words from the White House: Words Coined or Popularized by America’s Presidents and OK: The Improbable Story of America’s Greatest Word by Allan Metcalf.

Word Buzz Wednesday: fishball revolution, hypercapnia, wazzock

Food on a stick

Welcome to Word Buzz Wednesday, your go-to place for some of the most interesting words of the week. The latest: a revolutionary hashtag, tipsy fish, and an excellent insult.

fishball revolution

“Reports of a crackdown against the hawkers who sell fish balls and other local food delicacies quickly spread on social media along with the hashtag #fishballrevolution.”

Louise Dewast, “Hong Kong ‘Fish Ball Revolution’ Erupts in Violent Crackdown,” ABC News, February 9, 2016

#fishballrevolution joins other revolutionary hashtags such as #BlackLivesMatter, #YesAllWomen, and the 2014 pro-democracy protests in Hong Kong known as the #umbrellarevolution.

The fishball revolution protests came as a result of Hong Kong’s “Localist” movement activists defending unlicensed food vendors, whom police were attempting to shut down.


Hypercapnia interferes with neuroreceptors in brains of fish, causing them ‘to become intoxicated,’ the study’s lead author, Dr Ben McNeill of UNSW, said in a statement.”

Olivia Goldhill, “Rising CO2 in the ocean will make fish ‘intoxicated,’ scientists predict,” Quartz, February 8, 2016

A study in Nature found that the concentration of CO2, or carbon dioxide, in some oceanic regions might increase to the point that fish would suffer from hypercapnia, “a build-up of CO2 in the blood,” which causes a kind of drunkenness. As a result, the fish would lose their sense of direction, leaving them unable to locate predators.

The word hypercapnia comes from the Greek hyper-, “over, above, beyond,” and kapnos, “smoke.”

sacred crocodile

“The sacred crocodile is also reportedly more docile than its belligerent Nile cousin, and digs caves in which it shelters.”

Ed Yong, “Natural History Museums Are Teeming with Undiscovered Species,” The Atlantic, February 8, 2016

The sacred crocodile, or Crocodylus suchus, is the second species of the Nile crocodile, previously thought to be just one species. The name was coined by scientist Evon Hekkala, who with her team discovered that the crocodiles used in sacred ceremonies were all C. suchus. Moreover, according to the ancient Greek historian Herodotus, “Egyptians selectively used a smaller, tamer crocodile in ceremonies and regarded it as sacred.”

silent disco

“The Swiss city of Lausanne has banned outdoor silent discos, saying that they are too noisy.”

Swiss city bans ‘noisy’ silent discos,” BBC, February 5, 2016

A silent disco is one in which music isn’t played aloud but via headphones. The practice apparently originated in the Netherlands in the early 2000s.

However, it seems, silent discos aren’t immune to noise, at least in one Swiss city where participants can’t help but sing along with the music.


“Donald Trump will be familiar with most abuse but the latest – ‘wazzock’ – might leave him flummoxed.”

Patrick Barham, “Wazzock: the perfect insult to throw at Donald Trump,” The Guardian, January 19, 2016

According to The Guardian, wazzock is “Northern slang for a stupid or annoying chump,” and is what Conservative Member of Parliament Victoria Atkins called Donald Trump during a debate about whether or not to bar the GOP presidential hopeful from Britain. While the term originated in the 1970s, says the Oxford English Dictionary, its origin is largely unknown.

Linguist Ben Zimmer discusses wazzock in more detail with Lexicon Valley.

Word Buzz Wednesday: caucus; coprolite; ZomBee

Bee on the back deck - 2014-04-14

Welcome to Word Buzz Wednesday, your go-to place for some of the most interesting words of the week. The latest: the political playoffs; super-old poop; the buzzing dead.


“If you’re nodding your head like ‘yes, of course, the caucus,’ but secretly have no idea what the heck everyone is talking about, this explainer is for you.”

Patrick Allan, “What Are Caucuses and How Do They Work?” Lifehacker, February 1, 2016

Caucuses and primaries, says Lifehacker, are like the NFL playoffs of presidential politics. The general election in November is like the Super Bowl.

In caucuses and primaries, which all states have, party members narrow down their preferences for presidential contenders. While primaries are run by state governments, caucuses are run by state party officials.

So why is the Iowa caucus so important? While it “only accounts for 1% of the total delegates that will be casting their votes at National Conventions,” it’s “the first phase of the presidential race” and “political analysts believe a lot can be determined from just this one state’s caucus results.”

As for where the word caucus comes from, there are a couple of theories. According to Grammar Girl, the word might have come from the Algonquin cau′-cau-as′u, “one who advises, urges, or encourages,” or perhaps the Greek kaukus, “drinking cup.” John Adams formed the Caucus Clubb, a “social and political organization,” in 1763.


“But serious study of coprolites did not begin until the mid-20th century, when researchers at McGill tried to examine Peruvian fecal samples for evidence of parasites.”

Sarah Laskow “To Truly Know an Ancient Society, One Must Analyze Its Feces,” Atlas Obscura, January 28, 2016

Coprolite is fossilized excrement. The word is a combination of copro-, “dung, filth, excrement,” which comes from the Greek kopros, “dung,” and -lite meaning “stone,” which comes from the Greek lithos, “stone.”

night mayor

“To solve this problem, the night mayor suggested not less, but more time for people to go clubbing.”

Feargus O’Sullivan, “A ‘Night Mayor’ Is Transforming Amsterdam After Dark,” CityLab, January 29, 2016

Amsterdam’s night mayor is in charge of the city’s special districts created for “after-dark businesses,” as well as managing and improving “relations between night businesses, residents, and City Hall.” The night mayor concept has also taken off in Paris, Toulouse, and Zurich.


“The most widely used ones fall into two broad classes: weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) and much lighter axions, though there is no shortage of more complex hypotheses that combine various types of particles.”

Sabine Hossenfelder, “The superfluid Universe,” Aeon, February 1, 2016

WIMPs are one of two classes of “so far undetected” particles that make up dark matter, that is, the matter of the Universe that’s invisible.


“But aside from helping a species and an industry, keeping ZomBees in check is a smart move because, seriously, do you want to live in a world with dying, nocturnal bees kamikazeing into your windows and lamps?”

John Metcalfe, “The Zombie Bees Are Here,” The Atlantic, February 2, 2016

ZomBees are so-called because the bees seem to have lost control of their usual functions and behavior, such as not emerging at night or in the cold. The bees are victim to a parasitic fly that injects eggs into their bodies that alter their behavior before bursting Alien-like from the bees’ chests.